Until 1997, the federal government and six provinces (British Columbia, Manitoba, Newfoundland, Ontario, Quebec and Saskatchewan) used the rand formula for labour relations. Most laws provided for a religious exception providing for donations to a charitable organization instead of union dues.  Until 1994, 9 per cent of collective agreements in Canada required the closed store, while 42.3 per cent used the union shop and 39.2 per cent the rand formula. Only 3 percent used the agency`s shop, while 6.5 per cent had the shop open.  In 1994, Alberta appointed a commission of inquiry to see if the adoption of laws on the American “right to work” model would benefit the province. The committee strongly opposed the policy after Alberta employers strongly supported the union shop.  Union clauses in Canadian collective agreements were applicable. .